The Buenos Aires Ministerial Decision of 13 December 2017 on Fisheries Subsidies (the BA Ministerial Decision) marks more than 20 years since the issue of subsidies to fisheries was raised at the World Trade Organization (WTO), originally under the auspices of Committe...

Trade-Restrictive Measures (TRM) are an area of huge concern to importers and exporters in African Union Least Developed Countries (AU LDCs) located in Sub-Saharan Africa. This report identifies and analyses discriminatory government policies that adversely affect AU L...

This report presents a legal and economic analysis of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the European Union (EU) and the East African Community (EAC), the EPA's relation to the rules of the WTO, and the implications of the UK’s departure from the EU on EA...

This memorandum aims to analyse the overall impact of South Sudan acceding to the East African Community (EAC), including the effects of joining the EAC Customs Union on customs policy and administration and the benefits of free movement of workers within the EAC. The...

This report seeks to legally arm the US government to pursue US interests vis-à-vis the UK and the EU (“Brexit Parties”), and to push trading priorities in negotiations under the auspices of the WTO. The report examines exactly how and when the US may assert its rights...

This memorandum is a redacted version of a confidential research paper on export restriction negotiations under the auspices of World Trade Organization (WTO). The complete version of this paper has two components: the first is a sketch of the existing legal framework...

This paper set out analysis and recommendations directed at defining the notions that are key to the ongoing negotiations on fisheries subsidies. It evaluates how these definitions or elements apply within the context of subsidy disciplines.

Authors: Irina Chicu, Juan...

This memorandum examines interpretation of Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) treatment standard for substantive protection in the context of international investment law.

Executive Summary


1. This memorandum examines interpretation of Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) treatment stand...

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